of local cultures justified by the desire to spread Eurocentric values. Since natural rights are grounded in human nature, there are no conditions other than that it is assumed to be possessed universally, equally by all as long as one is a human being. This concept was embodied in international law for the first time half a century ago (Heuer Schirmer, 1998 however the concept of universal human rights did not take consideration to the fact that most cultures do not follow identical morals to those of the west. Princeton,.J.: Princeton University Press. Leiden: Cambridge University Press. As a minimum the right to fair trial includes the following fair trial rights in civil and criminal proceedings: 106 the right to be heard by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal the right to a public hearing the right to be heard within. Koskenniemi, Marti (September 2002). Freedom of Speech Every human being has the right to speak freely and voice his opinions in public. A b Doebbler, Curtis (2006).
Many human-rights organisations have observer status at the essay my dream green school various UN bodies tasked with protecting human rights. 37 a b Alston 2005,. . 19 For example, Pharaoh Bocchoris (725-720 BC) promoted individual rights, suppressed imprisonment for debt, and reformed laws relating to the transferral of property. International technical guidance on sexuality education: An evidence-informed approach (PDF). 91 Despite these international conventions, organisations that monitor abuses of human rights (e.g., Amnesty International, the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims ) report widespread use condoned by states in many regions of the world. Lee Kuan Yew, Democracy, Human Rights and the Realities, Tokyo, Nov 10, In response, critics have pointed out that cultural relativism could be used as a justification for authoritarianism. 162 Defenders of moral universalism argue that relativistic arguments neglect the fact that modern human rights are new to all cultures, dating back no further than the udhr in 1948. "Convention relating to the Status of Refugees". Observations Upon Liberal Education, In All Its Branches: In Three Parts. Western democracy hinders rapid development. Human rights are inherent to all human beings irrespective of their nationality, ethnicity, religion, language or any other status.